Leonardo Journal Volume 44, Issue 5, 2011

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Leonardo is a print journal, published five times a year. Leonardo is edited by Leonardo/the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology, and published by the MIT Press.

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Table of Contents

Editorial David Carrier: The Future of Art History in the Context of Psychology and the Cognitive Sciences Artists’ Article Erik Brunvand and Al Denyer: “Micro-Scale Printmaking on Silicon” Abstract: Printmaking is a fine art practice that encompasses a variety of media including intaglio, relief, lithography and screen-printing. In this collaborative research project the authors extend the traditional boundaries of printmaking to create editions of micro-scale prints on the surface of silicon integrated circuits using the layers of materials normally used for making transistors and electrical interconnections. The process by which the images are printed on the silicon surface is discussed, alongside some of the conceptual and technical issues related to creating printed images using this technology. Artist’s Note Joe Marshall, Alan Chamberlain and Steve Benford: “I Seek the Nerves under Your Skin: A ‘Fast’ Interactive Artwork” Abstract: I Seek the Nerves under Your Skin is a wearable audio artwork that is experienced by people running while wearing a special jacket and headphones. This artwork encourages people to run increasingly fast, pushing themselves physically and mentally, which mirrors the intense, crescendoing performance of a poet heard on the headphones. This article discusses the challenges of designing and deploying an artwork that is experienced at high speeds. General Articles Anjan Chatterjee, Bianca Bromberger, William B. Smith II, Rebecca Sternschein and Page Widick: “Artistic Production Following Brain Damage: A Study of Three Artists” Abstract: We know little about the neurologic bases of art production. The idea that the right brain hemisphere is the “artistic brain” is widely held, despite the lack of evidence for this claim. Artists with brain damage can offer insight into these laterality questions. The authors used an instrument called the Assessment of Art Attributes to examine the work of two individuals with left-brain damage and one with right-hemisphere damage. In each case, their art became more abstract and distorted and less realistic. They also painted with looser strokes, less depth and more vibrant colors. No unique pattern was observed following right-brain damage. However, art produced after left-brain damage also became more symbolic. These results show that the neural basis of art production is distributed across both hemispheres in the human brain. Galina Pasko, Alexander Pasko, Turlif Vilbrandt, Arnaldo Luis Lixandrão Filho and Jorge Vicente Lopes da Silva: “Ascending in Space Dimensions: Digital Crafting of M.C. Escher’s Graphic Art” Abstract: M.C. Escher's artwork has inspired and arguably even informed computer science, as well as geometric and shape modeling. Even today, much of his work poses challenges to conventional digital shape modeling systems. The authors introduce several interesting problems presented by Escher's graphic artworks and describe their use of a novel approach, based on implicit surfaces and their extension (Function Representation), to produce 2D, 2.5D and 3D computer models. They also discuss several physical objects or sculptures based on these models, crafted using digital fabrication processes. Todd Siler: “The ArtScience Program for Realizing Human Potential” Abstract: Established in 1994, the ArtScience Program integrates the arts and sciences, applying their methods of creative inquiry, critical thinking, real-world problem solving and collaboration skills for meeting today’s challenges. Using arts-based learning tools and facilitated hands-on workshops, individuals learn to make and explore symbolic models through Metaphorming. This process connects and transforms information in personally meaningful, purposeful and useful ways. The symbolic models serve as a global common language to help improve communication by fostering understanding. Amit Zoran and Marcelo Coelho: “Cornucopia: The Concept of Digital Gastronomy” Abstract: The authors present a new concept of digital gastronomy---Cornucopia, a futuristic cooking methodology based on digital technologies. They discuss how they have merged kitchen tools with science fiction and actual technologies to create this new design space for gastronomy. The Virtuoso Mixer, the Digital Fabricator and the Robotic Chef were conceptualized to enable more flexibility and control over each of the most important elements of cooking: mixing ingredients, modeling food shapes and transforming edible matter from one state to another. The authors discuss related work and ideas, present their designs and propose their vision for the emerging design space of digital gastronomy. Theoretical Perspectives Mauri Kaipainen, Niklas Ravaja, Pia Tikka, Rasmus Vuori, Roberto Pugliese, Marco Rapino and Tapio Takala: “Enactive Systems and Enactive Media: Embodied Human–Machine Coupling beyond Interfaces” Abstract: This paper proposes the concept of enactive system as an alternative to the standard human-computer system and elaborates the idea of content mediation as enactive media. The authors’ system consists of the two elements coupled in a holistic manner by means of bodily and spatial involvement, or enactment. Such a system is recursive by nature, involving the impact of the technology on the human agent as well as the effect of the human experience on the technology. Instead of the standard explicit interface, there is an implicit connecting surface, based on unconscious psycho-physiological reactions. The aim is not only to point out an analytic approach to existing media systems but also to develop radically novel media concepts implied by the enactive systems. Nick Lambert: “From Imaginal to Digital: Mental Imagery and the Computer Image Space” Abstract: The author suggests that the intangible characteristics of computer graphics bear some resemblance to the brain’s ability to construct mental images, as outlined by veteran researcher Stephen M. Kosslyn. An analogy might also be drawn with the “Imaginal World” of the Sufis, as described by Henri Corbin, which exists in a space of its own. As computer graphics have emerged as an artistic medium, one may consider how this internalized ability influences the artist’s response to the computer, especially as new display technologies emerge. Leonardo Reviews Reviews by Jan Baetens, Enzo Ferrara, Allan Graubard, Rob Harle, Amy Ione, Mike Leggett, Florence Martellini, George Shortess, Jonathan Zilberg Transactions Daniel F. Keefe: From Gesture to Form: The Evolution of Expressive Freehand Spatial Interfaces Abstract: This paper presents a series of insights from an ongoing investigation into refining custom spatial computer interfaces and graphical primitives for suggesting 3D form in immersive digital spaces. Technical innovations utilizing 3D gesture capture, force feedback, and stereoscopic presentation are described through reference to specific free-form digital sculptures created with the CavePainting and Drawing on Air interfaces. The role of the human hand in digital art practice and the potential of interfaces that tightly couple freehand movements with geometric algorithms are discussed. JoAnn Kuchera-Morin: “Performing in Quantum Space: A Creative Approach to N-Dimensional Computing” Abstract: This paper discusses a new approach to scientific and artistic computing that allows one to use the creative process of music performance to interact with n-dimensional data sets. Using a unique multi-user instrument, the AlloSphere, a three-story metal sphere in an echo-free chamber that immerses approximately twenty-five researchers in 4-Pi stereo radians of interactive visual and audio data, new scientific discoveries and emergent art transform science and art into a new field. Jin Wan Park: “Information Aesthetics with Visual Genealogy Project” Abstract: A human life is not generated spontaneously; our existence is a random combination of hazy vestiges of our ancestors. The idea behind this artwork is to embody half a millennium of data about people's lives into a single computer-generated image. Luca Simeone: “Learning from Interstitial Typography” Abstract: Interstitial typography is an aesthetic practice that, as demonstrated in some examples of Paula Scher and E-types, may provide ideas for the design of distributed interactive displays.

Updated 21 September 2011