Leonardo Journal Volume 48, Issue 1, 2015

Leonardo is a print journal, published five times a year. Leonardo is edited by Leonardo/the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology, and published by the MIT Press.

ONLINE ACCESS: Subscriptions to Leonardo include access to electronic versions of journal issues available on The MIT Press website.

ORDER: Subscriptions, individual issues and articles can also be ordered from The MIT Press.

PAST ISSUES: Browse tables of contents and abstracts of past issues of Leonardo and LMJ



A Contribution to the Leonardo Discussion

by Herbert W. Franke

LASER Gallery

LASER Presenters: Norman Ballard, Patricia Burchat, Nina Samuel

Artist’s Article

Composing Perceivable Time

by Jenn Kirby

ABSTRACT: Time is an integral element in music. The chronometric duration of a piece of music often differs from the duration perceived by the listener. This paper presents a composition that aims to manipulate the listener’s perception of time and presents the research findings that influenced the compositional decisions.

Color Plates

Janine Randerson, Jennifer Salmond and Chris Manford: Weather as Medium:Art and Meteorological Science

General Articles

Code Bending: A New Creative Coding Practice

by Ilias Bergstrom and R. Beau Lotto

ABSTRACT: Creative coding, or artistic creation through the medium of program instructions, is constantly gaining traction, and there is a steady stream of new resources emerging to support it. However, the question of how creative coding is carried out still deserves more attention. In what ways may the act of program development be rendered conducive to artistic creativity? As one possible answer to this question, the authors present and discuss a new creative coding practice, that of code bending, alongside examples and considerations regarding its applications.

Capturing the Body Live: A Framework for Technological Recognition and Extension of Physical Expression in Performance

by Elena Jessop

ABSTRACT: Performing artists have frequently used technology to sense and extend the body’s natural expressivity through live control of multimedia. However, the sophistication, emotional content and variety of expression possible through the original physical channels are often not captured by these technologies and thus cannot be transferred from body to digital media. In this article the author brings together research from expressive performance analysis, machine learning and technological performance extension techniques to define a new framework for recognition and extension of expressive physical performance.

Karakuri: Subtle Trickery in Device Art and Robotics Demonstrations at Miraikan

by Michael Shea

ABSTRACT: Based on museological participant-observation conducted at the Miraikan National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Tokyo, this article considers the role of karakuri, or subtle trickery, referring to devices that evoke a sense of awe and wonderment through concealment of their inner workings. The author critically assesses Miraikan’s Tearoom of Zero/One gallery space as well as its ASIMO demonstrations in terms of their utilization of this quality.

Synesthesia: From Cross-Modal to Modality-Free Learning and Knowledge

by Roy Williams, Simone Gumtau and Jenny Mackness

ABSTRACT: In an integrated view of perception and action, learning involves all the senses, their interaction and cross-modality, rather than multi-modality alone. This can be referred to as synesthetic enactive perception, which forms the basis for more abstract, modality-free knowledge and a potential underpinning for innovative learning design. The authors explore this mode of learning in two case studies: The first focuses on children in Montessori preschools and the second on MEDIATE, an interactive space designed for children on the autistic spectrum that offers a “whole-body” engagement with the world.

Historical Perspective

In Movement, Color and 3D Chromostereoscopy

by, Maureen Nappi: Lillian F. Schwartz Redux

ABSTRACT: This article examines three computer animations created by the pioneering filmmaker Lillian F. Schwartz circa 1970 that are currently viewable in 3D chromostereoscopy, specifically with ChromaDepth® 3D glasses. Reimaging these works 40 years after their creation permits a renewed formalist experience and a thematic analysis that reveals the primacy of Schwartz’s concern with depth and visual perception as part of her poetic sensibility. Excerpted interviews between the author and Lillian Schwartz are provided as an online appendix to this paper.

Special Section of Leonardo Transactions: Color-Scale-Visualization

Papers by Chris Toumey and Brigitte Nerlich; Philip Moriarty; Kathrin Friedrich; Liv Hausken; Lars Lindberg Christensen, Douglas Pierce-Price and Olivier Hainaut; Thomas Turnbull; Ingeborg Reichle; Catherine Allamel-Raffin; Sky Gross, Shai Lavi and Edmond J. Safra; Gunnar E. Höst and Gustav Bohlin


A. Michael Noll, Carolyn L. Kane

Leonardo Reviews

Reviews by Rob Harle, Amy Ione, Enzo Ferrara, Mike Leggett, George Gessert, Jan Baetens, John F. Barber, Brian Reffin Smith.

Leonardo Network News


Crowdfunding Art, Science and Technology: A Quick Survey of the Burgeoning New Landscape

by, David Marlett

About the Cover

Cecilia Laschi, Octobot, a robotic “octopus” arm. ( © Cecilia Laschi. Photo: Massimo Brega.)  Laschi’s “morphological computing” approach to the design of robots assumes that intelligence resides not only in a central computing “brain” but also in the “body.” The soft, rubbery bodies of her robots are able to move elegantly in water and respond flexibly to the environment, in a manner reminiscent of an octopus.

Supplemental Files Available

See <mitpressjournals.org/toc/leon/48/1> for supplemental files (e.g. video clips, sound files, additional images) related to articles in this issue.

Updated 3 February 2015