Leonardo Journal Volume 47, Issue 3, 2014

Leonardo is a print journal, published five times a year. Leonardo is edited by Leonardo/the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology, and published by the MIT Press.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Editorial

Marie Meets Leonardo: A Perfect Match?

by Sue Denham


Artist’s Note

Computer Virus Sculptures and the Science That Inspired Them

by Forrest McCluer


Color Plates


Artist’s Article

Mirror Brain: Picture and Experience

by Elisabeth Weissensteiner and Dorothea Brückner

ABSTRACT: The installation Mirror Brain was developed by artist Elisabeth Weissensteiner and neurobiologist Dorothea Brückner at the University of Bremen, Germany, where it was launched. The installation, a contemporary work of hybrid art, establishes a philosophical play with viewers-turned-actors rather than an interpretation of neuroscience. Thus it provides a metaphor---a mirror---for the role of neurobiology in science and in art. Based on the project, this paper elaborates on how artistic and scientific depiction differ from each other.


General Articles

Toward an Algorithmic Realism: The Evolving Nature of Astronomical Knowledge in Representations of the Non-Visible

by Lee Mackinnon

ABSTRACT: This paper explores the gathering of radio, optical and electromagnetic wavelength data in assembling images of the Crab Nebula (1844--2000). The author considers the expanding fields of astronomical and astrophysical knowledge to which such data analysis has given rise. She suggests that the data that makes such imaging possible moves us further from conventions of the optical real toward an algorithmic realism, alluding to time-scales that delimit and circumvent human time. Thus Cartesian metaphysics is displaced---the human becomes one agent among many in a process of algorithmic inference.

Endangered: A Study of Morphological Drawing in Zoological Taxonomy

by Gemma Anderson

ABSTRACT: Drawing has long been the backbone of zoological taxonomy. Recently, however, morphological drawing has quietly fallen into a critical decline and is now an endangered practice. The author discusses the reasons for this decline and why morphological drawing is worth saving.

Modes of Address in Pictorial Art: An Eye Movement Study of Manet’s Bar at the Folies-BergÈre

by Beth Harland et al.

ABSTRACT: Art-historical accounts of the last 200 years identify developments in the types, or “modes,” of address that a picture can present to a viewer as critical to the experience and evaluation of paintings. The authors focus on “anti-theatrical” theories of pictorial address and the complex and innovative “double relation” of absorption and acknowledgment introduced by the painter Edouard Manet. They report a case study of Manet’s A Bar at the Folies-Bergère investigating expert and novice spectators’ eye movements and utterances in response to the painting to find evidence that viewers seek resolution of the complex “double relation” that the theories describe.


general note

Alan Turing’s Drawings, Autopoiesis and Can Buildings Think?

by Dennis Dollens

ABSTRACT: Alan Turing decoded nature in drawings and algorithmic programming. His botanical decryptions helped situate synthetic AI/ALife processes in digital realms now encompassing algorithmic simulation. These little-known drawings prompted the author’s analysis via Maturana and Varela’s theory of autopoiesis because of its emphasis on self-organization and minimal requirements for life. Autopoiesis, if hybridized with Andy Clark's extended cognition, then supports an underpinning hypothesis for generative architecture. Together, the theory and drawings propel design research, leading to the question: Can buildings think?---reprocessing Turing’s original question: “Can machines think?” This paper thus situates Turing’s 1950s’ nature-to-computation images as unacknowledged design patrimony appropriated for generative architecture derived from nature and implemented via autopoietic-extended design.


Transactions

Papers by Hanna Brinkmann, Laura Commare, Helmut Leder, Raphael Rosenberg; Brigid Costello; Roger T. Dean; Ian Parberry


Special Section of Leonardo Transactions: Arts, humanities and complex networks

Papers by Scot Gresham-Lancaster; Paolo Ciuccarelli; Doron Goldfarb, Max Arends, Josef Froschauer, Martin Weingartner, Dieter Merkl; Andreas Spitz and Emőke-Ágnes Horvát; Marnix van Berchum; Pablo Amster, Bruno Mesz, Juan P. Pinasco, Pablo H. Rodríguez Zivic; Santiago Ortiz; Ruth Ahnert and S.E. Ahnert; Thomas Lombardi; François-Joseph Lapointe; Robert Tolksdorf


Special Section of Leonardo Transactions: 3rd Art and Science International Exhibition and Symposium, Beijing, 2012

Papers by Keith Armstrong; Zhou Haoming and Wang Chen; Zhu Hongqi and Liu Bing; Zhu Yongming


Leonardo Reviews

Reviews by Cecilia Wong, Kieran Lyons, Martha Blassnigg, Jan Baetens, Mike Mosher, Stephen Petersen, Aparna Sharma, Rob Harle, Florence Martellini and Anthony Enns


Leonardo Network News

Updated 29 May 2014